Glossary of Auction Terms

Absentee Bids: In an online auction, ALL bids are executed through If you do not have a computer or do not feel comfortable bidding yourself, we do accept absentee bids. You will be provided with a form to complete, sign and return and we would do the bidding on your behalf. You may contact us for an “Absentee Bid Form”.

After: A work of art or object made in the style of an artist or maker, but not by the artist. Sometimes refers to bronzes or other multiples that may have used an artist’s mold or plate, but were reproduced by someone other than the artist. Can also be used to describe a direct reproduction after an original work of art.

Attributed (attr.): In our opinion, probably or possibly a work of art by the artist or maker, but either unsigned, unmarked and/or lacking adequate provenance or agreement by experts in the field.

Bears the Signature: The work is signed, but the work and signature may not be by the hand of the artist.

Bidding Increments: iGavel has standard bid increments that are followed that are determined by the current bid.

Buyer’s Premium (BP): The additional amount above the final bid amount (also known as hammer price) that is paid as part of the total purchase price (25%)

Condition: Any visible condition problems, flaws, or damage to the piece. Acceptable condition varies for various categories of object. For example, antique furniture, paintings and decorative objects are expected to show a certain amount of wear, given their age, while modern pieces should be closer to perfect condition.

Estimate: The price range the item is expected to be bid to, the expected selling price.

Hammer Price: The final bid amount that the item sells for.

In the Manner of: Made in the likeness or style of an artist, with a slight possibility that it was made by the artist or maker, or by a follower or student of him or her. Also see “After” and “Attributed To”.

Measurements: Furniture and items are measured at their largest/widest points. Art is measured without the frame, unless specified. Prints are measured either to the plate mark of full sheet, if no plate mark or image.

Not Examined Out of Frame: The piece of art has not been taken out of the frame for examination.

Packing Fees: Please view our Shipping Policy under the link on the auction page for more information.

Possibly: Being something that may or may not be true or actual. We do not guarantee it to be true.

Probably: Supported by evidence strong enough to establish presumption but not proof. We do not guarantee it to be true.

Property Title: The name of the owner of the piece or the estate or collection from which CA purchased the piece.

Provenance: The history of ownership of the piece, provided either by the consignor or from accompanying information.

Registration: You can register directly through, which asks you provide name, contact information and a credit card for security purposes. Wedo not receive your credit card information and you will not be automatically billed through your credit card for the sale. You must contact us to make payment arrangements for the auction.

Reserve: LCA does not sell objects subject to a hidden Reserve. Every item offered for sale will be sold to the highest bidder at or above the starting price. Also see “Starting Price”.

School: Usually relates to a particular artistic or aesthetic movement. It can also relate to an actual school or to followers of a particular artist or maker. Also see: “Manner of”, “Style”, “Attributed to” and “After”.

Shipping: Small items are packed and shipped via a third party packing and shipping company. Larger items and furniture can be shipped through other companies. More information can be found under the link on the auction page for Shipping Information.

Shipping Quotes: Shipping costs are determined by the size, weight and value of each piece or lot of items, along with how far they will be shipped. Inquire with lot number(s) and location for a shipping quote.

Starting Price: The starting price is usually 65% of the low estimate. A bid cannot be entered that is lower than the starting price.

Style: After the time period in which the style originated, or a more recent reproduction (ie: Queen Anne style, Chippendale style). In artworks, sometimes used to refer to the style of a particular artist or artistic movement, generally made long after that time period.

Unsold Items: If an item does not receive an opening bid, and the consignor is in agreement, this item may be re-listed for a short 2-day auction.